If you misconstrue something that has been said or something that happens, you understand or interpret it incorrectly.
A misapprehension is a misunderstanding or false impression that you are under, especially concerning another person's intentions towards you.
A misgiving is a doubt or uncertainty that you have about something, usually something that you are about to do.
A misnomer is a name given to someone or something that doesn't quite fit or is inaccurate in some obvious way.
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